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संघात्मकता र स्वायतताका गाँठाहरु
Dr. Krishna B. Bhattachan, Ph.D.

यो लेख PDF फाइलमा पढ्न यहाँ क्लिक गर्नुहोस्
यो लेख पढ्न तपाईंको कम्प्युटरमा प्रीती फन्ट हुनु पर्छ। प्रीती फन्ट डाउनलोड गर्न यहाँ क्लिक गर्नुहोस्। तेस पछी तपाईंको कम्प्युटरको 'C' ड्राइव मा भएको फन्ट फोल्डरमा Save शेभ गर्नुहोस्। PDF फाइल पढ्न Acrobat Reader चहिन्छ्, यदि छैन भने फ्री डाउनलोडको लागि यहाँ क्लिक गर्नुहोस

ljifo k|a]z

o"=Pg=l8=kL= sf] slG6Ro";gn P8\efOh/L ;kf]6{ o"lg6 -sf;'_ sf ozkfn 3fO{, hLn Sof6«f]n, /a6{ / 8f= ;"o{ 9'+u]nnn] Sofg8f l:yt km]8/n kmf]/dsf Plzof KoflzkmLs If]qsf sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs 8]le8 cn]SHof08/ Dofs8f]gfN8sf] ;Ddfgdf cgf}kfrl/s l8g/ sfo{s|d xf]6n Pe/]i6df hgj/L * tfl/vsf lbg cfof]hgf u/]s]f lyof] . pQm l8g/df cgldgsf :ofd'Pn tfd|ft, cfO=8L=O{=P=sf nLgf, g]kfnL sf+u|];sf 8f z]v/ sf]O/fnf / 8f= ldg]Gb| l/hfn, g]=s=kf= dfc]fjfbLsf lvdnfn b]jsf]6f, g]=s=kf= Pdfn]sf ;'/]Gb| kf08] / d u/L !@ hgf lyof}+ . sf;'sf] ;efsIfdf hgj/L !) tfl/vsf lbg cfof]lht 5nkmn sfo{s|ddf 8]le8, oz 3fO{, hLn, 8f= 9'+u]n, kf;f+u z]kf{, afns[i0f dfa'xf+u, nSsL z]kf{, k|f= s[i0f vgfn, s[i0f clg?b| uf}td, 8f= k'ik/fh s+8]n / d nufot Ps bh{g htL lyof}+ . b'j} cgf}krfl/s cGt/s[of d"ntM ;+ljwfg ;ef ;Mzt{ sL lgMzt{< uf]nd]r ;Dd]ng cfjZos kg]{ sL gkg]{< cfjZos k/] s] s;/L ug{ ;lsG5< jf lsg ug{ ;lsb}g< ;+3fTds lsg, s:tf] / s;/L< ;+3fTdstfsf jf/]df ljeLGg ;+3 ;+:yfx?n] s] u/L /fv]sf 5g\< ;+3fTds Joj:yfdf ;|f]tsf] af+8 kmf+8 / cfly{s kIfx? s] x'g]5< r}tdf x'g] elgPsf] ;+ljwfg ;efsf] lgjf{rg cl3 sf;'n] /fhg}lts bnx? / gful/s ;dfhnfO{ s] s;/L ;xof]u ug{ ;S5< ;+3fTdstfsf] jf/]df ;fj{hlgs ax;nfO{ s;/L cuf8L nfg ;lsG5< ;+3fTdstfsf jf/]df af}l4s JolQmx? ljr cGt/;+jfb u/L ;xdtLdf cfpg kg]{ sL gkg]{< g]kfnsf cflbjf;L hghlftx? ;+u ljZjsf cflbjf;L hghfltx?n] ;+3fTdstfsf cg'ejx? atfPsf 5g\ sL 5}g< s] ;+3fTdstf g} eGg kb{5 jf kb}{g< pQm 5nkmnx? oL / cGo k|Zgx?sf] pQ/ vf]Hgdf s]lGb|t /x]s]f lyof] . lo dWo] s]lx dxTjk"0f{ k|Zgx? v]fHgdf of] ;fKtflxs em6f/f] s]lGb|t 5 .

uf+7L s'/fM lgMzt{ jf ;Mzt{ ;+ljwfg ;efsf] r'gfj<

/fhg}lts bnx? / o:sf g]tfx? ;dfa]zL / ;dfg'kflts s'/fx? u/]/ d'vx? yfSb}gg\ t/ Jojxf/df ptfg{ kbf{ eg] pgLx?sf] gf}gf8L un]/ cfp+5, cf]+7x? ;'Sg yfNb5, afp cfdfsf] ljx] b]Vg yfNb5g\ . /fhg}lts bnx? cfwf/e"t lgtLut ;jfnx? ;d]t ;+ljwfg ;ef hgtfs]f k|ltlgwLx? ePsfn] To;}n] lgSof]{n u5{ eGg] ub{5g\ . dfcf]jfbLn] clxNo} u0ftGqsf] 3f]if0ff u?+ eGbf jf+sL ;a} bnx?n] ;+ljwfg ;efsf] klxnf] a}7sn] u5{ eG5g\ . hgcfGbf]ng efu # cyf{t dw]zL cfGbf]ngsf] bjfjdf kg'{ cl3 ;+3fTdstfsf 3f]if0ffsf ;DaGwdf ;a} /fhg}lts bnx? ;+ljwfg ;efn]g} l5gf]kmfgf] ug{ kb{5 eGg] ub{y] . t/ cfGbf]ngsf] /fk / tfkn] pgLx? ;+ljwfg ;ef cl3g} ;+3fTdstfsf] 3f]if0ff ug{ afWo eP . cj eg] ;+3fTdstf hftLo, eflifs / If]qut :jfoQtfdf cfwfl/t ePsf] 3f]if0ff ;+ljwfg ;ef cl3 x'g k5{ eGbf ;ft /fhg}lts bnx? pQm s'/fsf] l5gf]kmfgf] ;+ljwfg ;efn] u5{ eGb} cfPsf 5g\ . ;+ljwfg ;ef cl3 hgtfn] gof+ Dof08]6 glbPsf] /fhg}lts bnx?n] kfl/t u/]sf zt{x? Psflt/ pwf/f] x'g] / ;f] ;+ljwfg ;efn] gdfGg klg ;Sg] / csf]{lt/ hgtfaf6 lgjf{lrt ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ :jtGq lg0f{o ug{ glbP/ c+s'z nufpg gldNg] ts{x? klg 5 . cflbjf;L hghflt / ;/sf/ ljr ePsf] jftf{sf j]nf ;/sf/L jftf{ 6f]nLsf ;+of]hs /fdrGb| kf}8]nn] lu/Lhf, k|r08, dfwj g]kfn ;a} sf] xf] / ;+ljwfg ;ef cl3 :jfoQtfsf] 3f]if0ff ug]{< kf}8]nn] o:tf] 3f]if0ff ug]{ clwsf/ ;fj}ef}d;Qf / /fHo;Qfn] ;DkGg g]kfnL hgtfx?nfO{ dfq 5, To;}n] ;+ljwfg ;efn] dfq s] ug]{ eGg] lgSof]{n ug]{5 eg]/ yfSb}gy] . xfdLx?n] ;f]Wof}+, obL To:tf] x]f eg] s}og lg0f{ox? hgtfnfO{ ug{ glbP/ cGtl/d ;+;b ljwflosf / cGtl/d ;/sf/n] lsg u/]s]f t< ;ft bnn] h;/L wd{lg/k]Iftf / ;+3fTdstfsf] 3f]if0ff u/]/ /fd|f] u/]s]f 5 To;} u/L hftLo, eflifs / If]qut :jfoQtfnfO{ ;+ljwfg ;ef cl3 ;'lglZrt ug{ cfjZos 5 . dw]zL / cflbjf;L hghflt cfGbf]ngx?n] lbPsf] o:tf] bjfjnfO{ ;ft bnn] ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ lg0f{o ug{ lbg k5{ eg]/ k|lt/]fw ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .

oxf+g]/ a'em\g kg]{ uf+7L s'/f s] xf] eg] olb ;ft bnn] cfGtl/s nf]stGqsf] cEof; u/]/ s]lGb|o sld6L, :yfoL ;ldtL / kf]ln6 Jo"/f] b]lv :yfgLo sld6L;Dd / ;+ljwfg ;efsf] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL sDtLdf klg hftL, ln+u / If]qsf cfwf/df k"0f{?kdf ;dfj]zL / ;dfg'kflts ePsf] v08df oL cfGbf]ngsf/Lx? ;+ljwfg ;ef lgzt{ ug{ tof/ x'g]5g\ . olb clxn]sf] h:tf] afx'g If]qLsf] g]t[Tj / jr{:jn] lg/Gt/tf kfpg] xf] eg] hftLo, eflifs / If]qut :jfoQtf ;+ljwfg ;ef cl3 ;'lglZrt x'g' kb{5 / o:sf] lj:t[t vfsf eg] ;+ljwfg ;efn] sf]g]{5 . t/ o;f] ug{sfnflu klg ;+ljwfg ;efsf] lgjf{rg hftL, ln+u / If]qsf cfwf/df k"0f{?kdf ;dfj]zL / ;dfg'kflts x'g'kb{5 eGg] dfu xf] . ;ft /fhg}lts bnsf g]tfx? ;dfa]zL / ;dfg'kfltssf s'/f u/]/ yfSb}g t/ cfk\mgf] bnn] u/]sf sfdx? eg] tbg'?k x'+b}g . z]S;lko/s]f b dRof{06 ckm e]lg; gfds gf6ssf] ;fOnsnfO{ kf];L{ofn] Ps kfp08 df;' lgsfn t/ Ps yf]kf /ut r'xfpg kfp+b}g eg] h:t} l:ytL 5 . ;ft /fhg}lts bnsf g]tfx?n] vfO{kfO{ cfPsf Psflwsf/, ar{:j, /fO{+bfO{+ / xfnL d'xfnLnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbP/} ;j} hftL, ln+u / If]qsf hgtfx?nfO{ ;d]6]/ ;dfa]zL / ;dfg'kflts x'g rfxgf /fVg' Tolx Ps kfp08 df;' Ps yf]kf /ut gr'xfOsg lgsfNg vf]Hg' h:t} xf] . Ps yf]kf /ut gr'xfOsg Ps kfp08 df;' s:n] s;/L sf6]/ lng ;Dej x'G5< of] P]ltxfl;s / j:t'ut oyfy{tfnfO{ dw]zLx?n] a9L, cflbjf;L hghflt, blnt / dlxnfx?n] l7s l7s} ?kdf a'em]sf 5g\ . 

uf]nd]r ;Dd]ng ug{ k5{ sL kb}{g<

g]kfndf dfcf]jfbLnfO{ dfOg; u/]/ ;+ljwfg ;efsf] r'gfj x'+b}g eg] sf+u|];nfO{  dfOg; u/]/ ;+ljwfg ;efsf] r'gfj x'+b}g . TolQ dfq geP/ dw]zLnfO{ dfOg; u/]/ ;+ljwfg ;efs]f r'gfj x'+b}g . ;+ljwfg ;efsf] lgjf{rg g]kfnL sf+u|];sf] sf/0fn] klxnf] 3f]lift r'gfj @)^$ ;fnsf] h]7df ;DkGg x'g ;s]g eg] d+;L/ ^ sf] r'gfj dfcf]jfbL -hgtfsf ;dfg'kfltssf] rfxgf<_ sf sf/0fn] x'g ;s]g . cj r}t leq ug]{ elgPsf] r'gfjsf] jf/]df clglZrttf 5 . hgtfx? r'gfj x'+b}g eGg] 5 . dfcf]jfbLx? r'gfj eP r'gfjsf] nfOg geP hgljb|f]xsf] b'O nfOgsf] lgtL kfl/t u/]s]f cj:yf 5 . ljb]zLx? sfg'g / ;'/Iff Joj:yfdf ;'wf/ gcfP / cfGbf]ngsf/Lx? ;+u ljutdf ePsf ;Demf}tf sfo{Gjog u/]/ lrQ ga'emfP r'gfj x'+b}g eGg] 5 . dw]zLx? dw]zL :jfoQtfsf] ;'lglZrttf geOsg dw]zdf r'gfj x'+b}g eGg] 5 . sf7df8}+ k"j{ / y?x6 If]qdf hftLo :jfoQtfsf] ;'lglZrttf geOsg dw]zdf r'gfj x'+b}g eGg] 5 . g]kfn cflbjf;L hghflt dxf;+3n] ;/sf/;+u jftf{ ubf{sf] klxnf] lbgd} lnlvtdf ;d:ofx?sf] ;dfwfg ls:tfjGbLdf gu/]/ ;du|df Ps} k6s ug{ kg]{ / To;f] ug{ ;a} cfGbf]ngsf/Lx?nfO{ uf]nd]rdf /fv]/ jftf{ u/L ;d:ofs]f ;dfwfg vf]hLg' kg]{ dfu /fv]s]f lyof] . g]=s=kf= dfcf]jfbLn] u0ftGq, ;dfg'kfltssf] ;fy} uf]nd]rs]f ;d]t dfu /fv]sfn] d+;L/s]f lgjf{rg 6/]/ uPsf] lyof] . kl5 uf]nd]rsf] ;f6f] kb\d/Tg t'nfw/sf] lhDdfdf gful/s e]nf u/]/ ;ft bn ljr ePsf] @# a"+b] ;xdtLdf NofKr] nufP/ 6'+luPsf] lyof] .

;ft bndf dfc]fjfbL afx]ssf bnx?n] cem} klg uf]nd]r ;Dd]ngnfO{ dfcf]jfbLsf] dfu eGg] ?kdf a'em\b5g\, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, blnt, dlxnf, s0ff{nL nufotsf cfGbf]ngsf/Lx?sf] dfusf ?kdf a'em\b}gg\ . ;ft /fhg}lts bnx? cj uf]nd]rsf s'/f u/] 3f]lift ldlt r}tdf r'gfj x'g ;Sb}g eGg] bfjL ub{5g\ . cGt/f{li6«o ;+3 ;+:yfsfx?n] uf]nd]r ;Dd]ng u/] s'g s'g ;d'xnfO{ af]nfpg] cK7\of/f] 5 eGb5g\ . pgLx?sf] ljrf/df Ps yl/nfO{ af]nfP csf]{ yl/n] lj/f]w ub{5g\, ;a}nfO{ af]nfP 7"nf / k|ltlglwd"ns dfq 5}gg\, ;fgf / k|ltlglwd"ns gePsfx? klg 5g\ pgLx?nfO{ s] ug]{< ;a}nfO{ af]nfof] eg] klg gof+ gof+ ;d'xx? cfp+5g\ cgL s] ug]{ eGg] ub{5g\ . uf]nd]r ug]{ g} eof] eg] klg s:n] u/fpg] eGg] k|Zg klg 5 . cgldg jf ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3sfn] kxn ubf{ lbPsf] Dof08]6 gf3\of] eGg] cf/f]k nfUg] 8/n] pgLx? cl3 ;b}{g . uf]nd]r ;Dd]ng u/] ;ft /fhg}lts bnn] w]/} zlQm / clwsf/ u'dfpg kg]{ ePsf]n] To;f] ug{ dfGb}g . gful/s ;dfhn] ubf{ x'g] x]f t/ gful/s ;dfh cfkm} ljefhLt 5 . h] u/] klg uf]\nd]r ;Dd]ngdf uf]Ot / Hjfnf l;+x ;d'xx? gcfP s'g} klg k|of; cy{lxg x'g] cj:yf 5 . /fhg}lts bnx? Ps} k6s uf]nd]rdf cfpg rfx]sf] b]lvb}g . pgLx? ;a} eGbf cfGbf]ngsf/Lx?s} dfq uf]nd]r u/]/ Pp6f lgisif{df k'u] kl5 ;f] adf]lhd ;ft /fhg}lts bnx?;+u uf]nd]r ubf{ x'G5 eGg] 7fGb5g\ . ;ft /fhg}lts bnx?;+u cfGbf]nsf/L zlQmx?sf] uf]nd]r ug]{ eof] eg] klg klxnf] k6s dw]zsf ;z:q ;d'xx? dWo] /fhg}lts ?kdf cl3 a9]sfx? ;'/Iffsf] sf/0fn] z'?df 6]nLkmf]g ;Dks{sf] dfWod eg] efulng ;Sg] ;Defjgf eg] 5 / kl5 ;sf/fTds lbzf tkm{ uP z"?df ck|ToIf / kl5 k|ToIf ;xeflu x'g ;Sb5 . uf]nd]r ubf{ klg ;d:of b]lvG5 / gubf{ emg a9L ;d:of b]lvG5 . uf]nd]r ubf{ Ps csf{sf] ;d:of / ;dfwfgsf pkfo a'm\g ;lhnf] x'G5 eg] gubf{ ;d:of emg} h6Ln eP/ ljv08gs} xb ;Ddsf] rs|a[l4 ;f+jf Jofh ltg[ kg]{ ;Dd x'g ;Sb5 .

;+3fTdstf / :jfoQtfsfnflu cfly{s ;|f]tx?

g]kfn h:tf] ;|f]tsf] sld /x]sf] b]zdf ;+3fTdstf c;kmn x'G5 egL] bfjL ug]{ :jb]zL / ljb]zLx? klg 5g\ / ;+3fTdssf jf/]df ljkIfdf ePsf /fhg}lts bnsf g]tfx? klg 5g\ . o:tf ts{ lbg]x?n] s] s'/f lj;{G5g\ eg] olb kof{Kt cfly{s ;|f]t ;+3fTdstfsf] cfwf/ x'g} kg]{ eP kof{Kt cfly{s ;|f]t clxn]sf] PsfTds /fHodf gx'+bf klg To:tf] c;kmn gx'g] sLg< ljut kf+r bzsdf g]kfnsf] jh]6 ljb]zL ;xfotfaf6 rNbf s]lx gx'g], hgcfGbf]ng efu @ kl5 ;+;b ljwflosfsf] k'g:yf{kgf kl5 ul7t ;/sf/n] ah]6 gePsfn] ef/tsf] cfly{s ;xof]u lnP/ rnfp+bf l7s x'g] t/ ;+3fTdstf ePsf] a]nf o:t} eof] /] eg] klg a]l7s x'g] s;/L< jf:tjdf g]kfndf ;|f]tsf] sld xf]Og, ;|f]tsf] kl/rfng ug]{ ;dy{jfg /fhg}lts bn / g]tfx?sf] v8]/L xf] / o:tf] v8]/L klg hftLo, eflifs / If]qut :jfoQtf / ;+3fTdstfsf] cefjn] x]f . pbfx/0fsfnflu g]kfnsf] d':tf+u lhNnf ko{6sLo b[li6, h8La'6L / lxdfnkf/ Jofkf/ Joj;fosf lx;fjn] wgL 5 . clxn] PsfTds /fHosf] lgoGq0fdf /x]s]fn] pkNnf] d':tf+udf ko{6s hfg lbOPg, cfhsfn lbOG5 t/ rsf]{ z'Ns lng] u/LG5 / ef}uf]lns ljs6tfn] Toxf+ hftLo :jfoQtf h:t} cj:yf /x] klg ;|f]t / ;fwgsf] kl/rfng s]Gb| ;/sf/s]f :jLs[lt glnOsg s]xL ug{ kfO{b}g . To;}n] d':tf+u lhNnfsf] ljsf; ePg . olb d':tf+usf cflbjf;L hghfltx?n] Psn jf a[xQ/ klxrfgsf] :jfoQtf kfof] eg] ;|f]ts} sldn] grNg] l:ytL cfpg] 5}g . /f0ffsfndf klg d':tf+unfO{ clwsf/ lb+bf g]kfndf ;a}eGbf al9 /fh:j Tolx+ af6 p7\g] uYof]{ . o:sf] l7s ljkl/t d':tf+u h:tf] :jfoQ k|b]zn] cfh{g ug]{ cfly{s kmfobfaf6 ;+3n] ;d]t kmfobf kfpg] l:ytL cfpg]5 . r]kf+un] :jfoQtf kfof] eg] r]kf+ux?sf] l:ytL w]/} l56f] w]/} /fd|f] x'g]5 . Tolx s'/f dw]z jf lnDa'jfg jf y?x6 jf lxdfnL jf cGo :jfoQ k|b]zx?sfnflu klg nfu"x'G5 . hdLg, kfgL, vfgL, r/0f nufotsf k|fs[lts ;|f]tx? dflysf] clwsf/, s/ nufog] clwsf/, cGt/ :jfoQ k|b]zx?;+u ;|f]tsf] n]gb]gdf jfu]{gL+u ug]{ clwsf/ / ljb]zL bft{;+:yfx? ;+u ;xof]u lng ;Sg] clwsf/x? x'g] ePaf6 ;|f]tx?sf] sld xf]Og a? a9f]Q/L x'G5 eGg] s'/f lglZrt 5 .

cGt/fli6«o kIf

g]kfnsf] /fhg}lts 36gf s|ddf ;a}eGbf al9 rf;f] ef/tsf] / To; kl5 cd]l/sf, a]nfot / rLgsf] klg /lx cfPsf] 5 . g]kfndf cGt/fli6«o zlQm eg]sf] klZrdf zlQmx? ePsf]n] klZrdf zlQmn] g]kfndf ;SsnL dfq geP/ ;SsnL h:tf] b]lvg] sDo'lgi6x?sf] zf;g cfPsf] x]g{ rf+xb}gg\ . To;}n] k|r08sf] t s'/} 5f8f}+ dfwj g]kfnnfO{ ;d]t k|wfgdlGq x'g glbg]] ;d:of /xb} cfPsf] 5 . ef/t / rLg b'j}df cflbjf;L hghfltx? ePsf] / pgLx?nfO{ cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ ;lxtsf] hftLo :jfoQtf k"0f{?kdf glbPsf] cj:yf 5.  g]kfndf Ps bzssf] ;z:q ljb|f]xsf sf/0fn] tL ;Dej ePsf] cj:yfdf ef/t / rLgdf klg To:sf] k|efj kg{ ;S5 . To;}n] b'j} l5d]sL d'n'sx? g]kfndf cfTdg0fo{sf]  clwsf/ ;xltsf] hftLo :jfoQtf ;kmntf k'j{s nfu" ePsf] x]g{ rf+xb}gg\ eGg] b]lvG5 . To;}n] g]kfn, ef/t, rLg, a]nfot, cd]l/sf / cGo d'n'sdf a;f]af; u/]sf g]kfnsf cflbjf;L hghfltx?n] ;DalGwt d'n'ssf /fhlgtLs g]tfx?, gLlt lgfdf{tfx?, af}l4s JolQmx? / cGo ;j{;fwf/0f gful/sx? dfem ljeLGg cf}krfl/s / cgf}krfl/s dfWodx?sf] k|of]u u/]/ ;sf/fTds hgdt ;[hgf ug{ cfjZos 5 . pgLx?nfO{ g]kfndf ;+3fTdstf / cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ ;lxtsf] hftLo, eflifs / If]qut :jfoQtf ljut @#( jif{;Dd lg/Gt/?kdf rln/xsf] Ps hft, Ps efiff, Ps wd{, Ps ;+:s[lt, Ps If]q, Ps ln+usf] xfnL d'xfnL, zf]if0f, bdg / plTk8gaf6 cflbjf;L hghlft, blnt, dw]zL, dlxnfx? d'Qm x'g, ePsf / ;Defljt lx+;f k|ltlx+;f / ;z:q ljb|f]xx?nfO{ /f]Sg, ;sf/fTds zflGt, k|ult / ;d[l4 tkm{ al3 a9\g cfaZos 5 eg]/ a'emfpg cfjZos 5 .

cGtdf,

slx+ Psn /fHo ;kmn 5 eg] slx+ c;kmn 5 . slx+ /fhtGqn] /fd|f] u/]s]f 5 eg] slx+ g/fd|f] u/]sfn] 6fps]f ;d]t sfl6Psf 5g\ . slx+ ;+3fTdstf ;kmn 5 eg] slx+ c;kmn 5 . slx+ PsfTds /fHo leq /fd|f] ljs]Gb|Ls/0f 5 eg] slx+ ;+3fTds /fHo clt s]lGb|s[t 5 . slx+ ;+3fTds gfd 5}g t/ sfd ;+3fTds 5 eg] slx+ gfd ;+3fTds 5 t/ sfd eg] s]lGb|s[t 5 . g]kfnsf] xsdf eg] ljut @#( jif{sf] /fhtGq, Psn /fHo, / afx'gjfbL, lkt[;QfjfbL / kxfl8of Psflwsf/jfbL ;f]r lgtL / Jojxf/ sf] cGTo ug{ kg]{ ePsf]n] ;+3fTds nf]stflGqs u0ftGq cGtu{t cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ ;lxt hftLo, eflifs / If]qut :jfoQtf vf]h]sf 5g\ . t/ k|Zg p7\5, s] ;a} s'/f h:tfs]f t:t} -afx'gjfbL_ /x]/ :jfoQtf cfpg ;S5< s] /fhlgtL l7s geO cGo s'/f l7s x'g ;Sb5< s] /fhg}lts bn l7s geO{ /fhlgtL l7s x'g ;Sb5< To;}n] klxn] /fhg}lts bnx?nfO{ / To; kl5 ;+ljwfg ;efnfO{ ;dfa]zL / ;dfg'kflts agfpg k5{ . /fhg}lts bnx? l7s ePgg\ eg] cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, blnt / dlxnf cfkm}n] g]t[Tj u/]s]f /fhg}lts bnx? agfpg kg]{ x'G5 .

January 11, 2008, Kathmandu

Dr. Krishna B. Bhattachan is a well known sociologist and leader of Indigenous Peoples in Nepal.  Read his profile» Comments? Write him at: kchan@wlink.com.np

सुप्रसिद्ध समाजशास्त्री
डा कृष्णबहादुर भटृचन आदिबासी जनजाती आन्दोलनका अगुवा हस्ती हुनुहुन्‍छ। हरेक साता शुक्रवार वहाँले लेख्नु हुने साप्‍ताहिक झटारो पढ्न नभुल्‍नु होला।

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